Rothwell and Kazanas (2003) report the two most overlooked and important components of the ADDIE model are Analysis and Evaluation. Logic dictates that to begin any journey, you must have a clear idea of your destination, Analysis.
As part of the Analysis, an assessment of needs is the logical place to begin. A needs assessment is a systematic exploration of the current state and determination of the way they should be or the desired state. The difference is the performance gap. The performance gap is usually discovered to be in one of two places; with individual performance or the organization.
If attention is not paid to a thorough analysis, the designer or consultant may spend a considerable amount of company resources to provide training that addresses a symptom not the root cause. To compound this error, if the consultant does not complete thorough evaluation post training, they may never know if the problem was solved or the performance gap closed. The consultant will not know if the problem was solved or if there was a positive return-on-investment for the consulting business. Training is a costly activity and should be done systematically.
Conduction of a Needs Assessment
i. determine the current level of Knowledge, Attitudes and Skills (KAS) – may include current and future needs
ii. examine organizational goals, climate
iii. look for internal and external constraints
i. Determine the necessary levels or competencies required for individual or organizational success
ii. Focus on necessary job tasks and criteria
1. knowledge, attitudes and skills (KAS)
i. Identification of the “gap” will clarify the needs, purposes and objectives
1. Deficits of KAS that can be resolved by training
2. Impending change
5. Mandated training
i. If motivation issues are at the root of the problem, training may still be an option. However, if motivation is directly linked to an organizational problem, this must be addressed to the organizational leadership with a suggested solution. Interventions may include:
1. effective strategic planning
2. organizational restructuring
3. performance management
4. effective team building
i. Direct observation
iii. Interviews with key personnel
iv. Consultations with subject matter experts (SME’s), managers, incumbents and other stakeholders
v. Review of pertinent records
vi. Focus groups
i. Remember that feedback should be provided to all those who contributed input. This is necessary for “buy in”.
Review this Performance Analysis Flowchart for a graphic example of Performance Analysis.